You might have heard of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), but do you really know what it is about, and which kinds of RFID are being used? Radio Frequency Identification is useful in many different sectors and applies to various processes such as inventory management, access control or industrial equipment automated identification.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is frequently used on a daily basis, without us even being aware of it, in many various fields of activity. It allows data transmission, storage and remote data recovery by means of radio waves. RFID is often used for product identification and automatic information gathering on specific items, with no need for any physical connection, unlike other technologies such as gencode for example. In most cases, this might be applied in two different ways, called active RFID or passive RFID.
RFID basic devices consist of several components. Among them, the tag, also called "radio tag", includes an electronic chip for data identification and storage, an antenna for communication purposes, as well as a reader or interviewer for wave transmission and reception. A computer and software are also required for data backup and analysis. Depending on the radio tag that is being used, you may need a battery or no battery at all (passive tags), a battery may be required only for wave transmission (semi-passive tags) or to power the tag and wave transmission (active tags).
The RFID tag is a critical electronic identification device. It usually consists of two main components: an antenna receiving the waves and an electronic circuit designed for information processing and storage. In other words, it contains an identifier and associated data on a chip, which is itself connected to the antenna. The tag transmits data to a reader by means of radio waves. Very popular in the RFID industry, tags are very useful for meeting traceability requirements, for example, since they do not necessarily need to be visible in order to be detected and, thus, to be read.
The reader is an electronic device used for transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves. It is able to detect and recognize the tag credentials through the ID provided by the chip manufacturer. It may also use a decoder in order to read the information carried by the incident wave.
The RFID antenna is designed for collecting and broadcasting electromagnetic waves. The transmission frequency depends on the antenna type, its wavelength and the selected chip frequency. In accordance with the specific application, the antenna should be as low-cost, non-invasive and as eco-friendly as possible. In order to optimize energy flow, the antenna impedance must be equivalent to the electronic chip impedance provided in the tag. In most cases, this impedance value is of 50?.
The computer and software allow to save the information collected by the reader. In some cases, they also may trigger the reader.